Throughout the history of the Cursillos in Christianity Movement, its main innovation and that of its method consisted in the presentation and proclamation of the doctrine of Grace. This was presented in a kerygmatic form in the context of personal testimony. The whole kerygmatic proclamation of the Cursillo revolved around the subject of Grace, thereby becoming the central axis of the Cursillo’s doctrinal synthesis .
Forty four years later the validity of those affirmations still stand. In this work however, we will be articulating the doctrinal nerve of the Cursillo in four points: Jesus Christ, Grace, the Church and the World. We are going to connect to that axis all Talks and Meditations, since they all form a harmonic collection, and from that axis we will describe the Cursillo theologically.(See Graphic)
As an introduction we will note down the anthropological entry that the Cursillo contains, which is formed by the first Meditation of the first night and the first Talk of the first day.
Man is a rational and free being, who must avoid present evil at all costs, consistent in the lack of personal reflection. For this reason it is necessary to organize one’s life so that it leads to the maximum of freedom and to a personalized existence. It is necessary to take a break in our walk through life and to face oneself honestly, detesting our own evil and throwing it out .
Man is creation’s superior being since he is gifted with intelligence, will and freedom. Because of his intelligence he is able to think, to reason, and to look for the meaning of things. His will makes him determined and he puts in practice his own ideas. Through freedom he can build his own life. The conclusion is that man is equipped with these three powers and is capable of arranging his acts towards a concrete aim, the ideal.
The ideal raises the acts in the life of man by giving meaning to each of them and to life itself. It also gives a transcendental aim. It gives hope and optimism to overcome difficulties and to improve oneself gradually. For that reason, it has to be the highest and most perfect possible.
B. Jesus Christ.
The Cursillo is deeply Christ-centred in the doctrine it proclaims, in the life it offers and the future it announces. Let us see the precise presentation it makes of Jesus Christ.
The Meditation of the second day deals with the figure of Christ and presents us the core of the Cursillo. The aim is to present Him in all His attractiveness, and that means to do it with realism, with authenticity and accuracy. It introduces a personal, present, close, and living Christ. Not a dehumanized and distant Christ. A Christ who, without depriving Himself of His divinity, 'humanizes’ Himself. In essence, a closer, incarnated and solidary Christ.
A quote from John is used to introduce Christ: There is one among you whom you don’t know. It is essential to know Him and we have to begin from that premise. But who is Jesus Christ?
He is God-Man, Verbum-Caro (Word made Flesh), Perfectus Deus-Perfectus Homo (fully God-fully man). After this elementary and fundamental affirmation, the presentation is divided in five sections: human nature, heart, intelligence, power and character.
His human nature, although joined together with the divine Person of the Word, in no way lost either His own personal activity nor His special way of acting. Jesus Christ prayed, worked, ate, suffered and rested, proving with those human actions that He was truly man... .
Christ, true God and true man. As true man He has a complete and perfect human nature. Created in both real soul and real body. Far from any shadow of docetism, He really prayed, He worked and really got tired, He really took nourishment... True God and true man. Divine person who assumes a human nature that is exactly equal to us, except in sin. This is the basis for building a personal relationship with Him. If He is true man, if He has a human nature like mine, then He is a valid point of reference because nothing human is strange to him. I can go to Him and be in tune with Him in my joys, my sadness, my pain, my problems, in the mystery of evil, and even in death.
His heart. Sublime friendship in the resurrection of Lazarus. Tears of a mother that forces a miracle from Him (Naím’s widow). His understanding at the wedding of Caná. His tact and charity with Zacchaeus and the adulteress. He cries, becomes distressed, He rejoices and is glad. All our human emotions find echo In the heart of Christ.
The purpose of the second Meditation on the first night is to help the ‘cursillista’ end up at the mercy of the Heart of Christ. The parable of the Prodigal Son is used as a base for this purpose . In the introductory notes, used to orientate the listener, an indication is given that in this parable, Christ, in the person of the Father, portrays his same Heart. Christ’s feelings towards the young man are of continued waiting, tenderness and inner commotion. He displays a love for him as father and mother, and celebrates with a feast the joy of having found His son. The conclusion is that Christ is always waiting for us with open arms .
His intelligence. He penetrates thoughts. He knows the future. He knows what there is inside each person. There are no secrets in my soul to his eyes. He knows and penetrates my deepest worries.
This condensed and solid paragraph is understood in the typical Christology line of the manuals of the time, according to which the divine science that belongs to him as God, is distinguished; the beatific vision, infused science and acquired science.
As man, the intelligence of Jesus is truly brilliant. Ample, universal, secure, acute in response to the difficulties posed to Him by His enemies. He knows our interiors with a psychological penetration that catches notice, both of those who look for his downfall and those who are his own disciples .
In any case, the important point to stress here is the deep penetration, the intimate knowledge he has of each person. That makes Him a valid go-between in order to enter into the most committed and profound dialogue of life; to establish an authentic, personal and transparent relation, since nothing is hidden from him. It is a consolation to know that there exists in life someone who understands you perfectly, even more than yourself.
The first morning’s Meditation, which ends the retreat that constitutes the first stage of the Cursillo, deals with the glances of Jesus. Jesus looks at three specific characters who react in different ways. He looks at the rich youth warmly and affectionately and offers him the fullness of life. Faced with his refusal, Jesus looks upon him with sadness. We assume that His looks at Judas at the Last Supper and in Getsemaní were meant to cause a change in his interior. His look at Peter, after his denials, is one of hurt and forgiveness –a look of forgiveness that exhorts him to continue forth–.
The important point is to know that Christ is also looking at you now, that he knows your interior. His look reflects your deepest attitude. He wishes and hopes to look at you with the joy of He who has given himself up generously.
His power. The calmed storm. The multiplication of loaves. The born blind.
Jesus Christ, as true God, is omnipotent. He has a clear conscience of this when he affirms: All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. As man He cannot be omnipotent, but His humanity has an instrumental virtue to produce all the necessary supernatural effects which are useful for our redemption. The miracles mentioned in this section are based on this line of thinking.
His character. Two touches: Solid and attractive kindness. In Jesus Christ we find a whole range of feelings passions and emotions proper of human psychology. They are all however, integrated in perfect harmony. It is because of this harmony He can be firm in character and smooth and gentle simultaneously. This is why He is forceful and simultaneously extremely kind and compassionate. All dimensions are fully balanced and integrated, without any dominating others. He is perfect man.
The perfect man who clarifies and reveals his own mystery to mankind. The truth is that only in the mystery of the Word incarnate, is light shed on the mystery of man. Because Adam, the first man, was a figure of Him Who was to come (cf. Rom 5.14), our Lord Jesus Christ. Christ, the new Adam, in the same revelation of the mystery of the Father and His love, fully reveals man to man himself and uncovers his sublime vocation.
He Who is "the image of the invisible God" (Col. 1:15), (21) is Himself perfect man. To Adam’s descendants He has restored the divine likeness which had been disfigured by the first sin.
After having contemplated the figure of Jesus, the Meditation of the last day consists in making the ‘cursillista’ feel the voice of the Teacher who is calling him. The points raised in the notes prior to the plan of the Meditation reveal the same meaning: The greatness of the love of Christ is so, that in spite of all the acts of infidelity and sins, not only does He grant His friendship (sanctifying Grace), but also deposits in his hands the treasures of His redeeming blood, for him to make it fructify in others.
Christ redeems, He offers his friendship, His life, and in addition calls for collaboration in the propagation of that life. Not only does He save, He also offers the possibility of contributing in the salvation of other men. This Meditation, the last one dedicated explicitly to the figure of Jesus Christ, becomes therefore, a call to apostolic work, and within it the conditions are indicated to enable this work to give abundant fruit.
It is Christ’s initiative. It is He who calls and selects personally. And He appoints, He sends out the chosen ones to go and produce an abundant and lasting fruit. The only way to produce fruit lies in union with Him. Remaining in Him produces plenty of fruit, just as by avoiding union with Him, one falls into complete impotence on the way of salvation. The initiative of the life of Grace on the way to sanctity that produces fruit, is a gift of the Father. That is why Christ requests it for His disciples. He earnestly asks the Father for the union of His people, in the same way that He and the Father are one and live in unity. Because to live in unity is a pre-condition for the world to believe. All that life of following, of intimacy, of going out to the world, must be lived with confidence, with hope and without fear, because He who sends us has defeated the world.
The idea behind the Sacraments Talk is does not propose to explain some cold and heartless contents, nor to synthesize the whole sacraments science in a catechesis. The idea is, first of all, to expose a doctrine that revolves around the Person of Jesus Christ. He is the centre of the Talk because He is the One who has instituted the sacraments. He is the author and the owner of Grace. By His death we became worthy of Grace, and He distributes it mainly by means of the sacraments.
Through Baptism, the baptized is united to Christ in a member-to-head relation and incorporates himself into the Church, which is the Mystical Body of Christ. Later on he will receive Confirmation, which is the sacrament of the militancy of Christ. Penance (Confession) gives back the life of Grace, the union with Christ that was lost. The Extreme Unction (sacrament of the sick) completes the incorporation into Christ and surpasses the obstacles blocking a perfect adhesion to him. Marriage is the sacrament of family life in Christ, Who sanctifies it with His presence. Holy Orders is the sacrament that makes the priests of Christ. The Eucharist is the sacrament of our transformation in Christ.
Our attention is drawn to the noticeable Christ-centred tone with which the sacrament of Marriage is considered. We have already seen that it is the sacrament of family life, not in any simple way, but in Christ. The main point of the plan after considering the definition and the effects, says thus:
Marriage, sanctified by the presence of Christ.
a) Christ, present in all the human events.
b) Christ, specially present in marriage, elevating it, confirming it, sanctifying it.
c) Consequences of the presence of Christ in marriage: Sanctity at everyone’s reach.
1. Marriage is not an obstacle for sanctity.
2. Marriage, ordinary way for sanctity in God’s plan: Sanctity becomes pleasant, more attainable... .
At the time these schema are written, two interesting and novel points were raised: The Christ-centred tone it denotes, and the call made to sanctity through marriage. The universal call to sanctity would be an achievement of Vatican II, but we find a clear precedent here.
In the first part of this work, we have highlighted how a fundamental new development of Cursillo consisted precisely in its dynamics, and the sense it acquired in the light of the doctrine of Grace through personal experience. The Cursillo centres its proclamation in the doctrine of Grace, in the life of Grace.
In the introductory notes to the Habitual Grace Talk, it is clearly stated that this lesson constitutes the foundation of all the others and of the whole Cursillo, in such a way that without it, many of the affirmations made in the other Talks cannot be explained and would remain unfounded.
The definition it offers of Habitual Grace is the following: It is a supernatural, inner and permanent Gift that God grants us for our sanctification, to divinise us and to make us His family.
The complete dissertation on Grace will be the development of this definition that has two well- differentiated parts. When defining the meaning of Grace three aspects are indicated: supernatural, inner and permanent gift. When determining their purpose, three objectives are also indicated: to sanctify us, divinise us and make us His family.
The Habitual Grace Talk, which is the central lesson towards which those of Actual Grace and Sacraments will be orientated, and which is the key to the doctrinal plan of the complete Cursillo, consists precisely in the breakdown and comments on the definition, in the two mentioned parts.
Grace is a supernatural gift, something that is above human nature. It is something spiritual, rooted in the soul and imperceptible to the senses. It is something permanent, lasting and habitual, so long as man does not reject it.
Three are the effects of Grace: It sanctifies, it divinises and makes us family of God. In the first point, that of sanctification, four aspects are included: Grace purifies from sin, is pleasing to the eyes of God, it turns the person into God’s friend and sanctifies him. The purifying of sin is explained comparing it with the purification that fire produces in iron. Grace burns our sins, it erases them, it makes them disappear. Besides freeing us from sin, sanctification involves us in a vital, supernatural and permanent union with God. As a result of which, we become pleasing friends in the presence of God.
Secondly, Grace divinises. This divinisation has three aspects: Our participation in divine nature, it turns us into temples of God and constitutes us as members of Christ. The participation in divine nature is a classic thesis of Catholic theology based on Scripture, although it unduly simplifies and goes too far when affirming that we are Gods. The second aspect of divinisation consists in that Grace makes us temples of God. Divine Persons inhabit in the just person. This inhabitation is mainly attributed to the Holy Spirit, who is the love between Father and Son. It also makes us members of the body of Christ. We become one body with Him, united through Grace to Christ-head and to each other, forming a single body united with Christ vine, receiving life from Him.
The third effect of Grace is that it makes us family of God. This effect is also broken down in three aspects: It makes us children of God, brothers in Christ and heirs to the kingdom of heaven. We become adoptive children of God as a result of our participation in His divine nature; true children of God whom we can address as Father. Consequently, we become brothers of Christ, whom we can call our brother with all propriety, even though His affiliation comes by way of nature and ours by way of adoption. Consequently, as children of God we will also become heirs to the kingdom of heaven.
The general conclusion and final message would be the following: This new life does not consist in acting in one way or another, or of doing things one way or another, it consists fundamentally in being, being son of God, brother of Christ and temple of the Holy Spirit. Our actions will be the consequence of our being. With this way of life all problems are rooted out and we find a worthwhile ideal.
The Talk on Actual Grace intends to clarify the following points: The absolute necessity of Christ, the fact that actual graces are always at our disposal and by being docile to them Christian life can become wholly supernatural. The great responsibility of the Christian who lives in Grace and the consequences of our infidelity to the same, together with the power of prayer to reach actual graces. The relation between habitual Grace and actual Grace: the first gives us the being, whereas the second gives us the power to act.
What is Actual Grace exactly? It is a supernatural, inner and transitory aid, with which God illuminates our understanding and fortifies our will to make supernatural acts.
What relation exists between Habitual Grace and Actual Grace? Habitual Grace constitutes our supernatural organism. It is like a complete engine, it has all the pieces. It is however necessary to get it started. The ignition of this organism, resulting in the practice of supernatural life, is something that is obtained by the influence of Actual Grace.
Actual Grace is absolutely necessary to reach salvation. God grants it at the appropriate time, be it for the fulfilment of precepts, or to overcome temptations. And he grants it by enlightening intelligence, provoking the will, or by external circumstances.
Actual Grace is divided as to sufficient and effective. Sufficient: it is enough to produce a supernatural act, unless man frustrates it through a lack of correspondence (merely sufficient). Effective: it is that by which the mercy of God and the free cooperation of man, produces its effect.
Living the life of Grace begins in a specific way, and is also maintained and increased in a specific way. The Talk dealing with the sacraments, indeed presents them as the tools that will help the Christian to receive, maintain and increase the life of Grace. This Grace that Christ has reached by means of His paschal mystery, is distributed mainly through the sacraments.
What are the sacraments?
They are sensitive signs, instituted by Christ, that signify and allow the flow of Grace.
Now then, what is it, what is it like and what is the significance of that Grace which is received through the sacraments?
a) Habitual Grace in its two forms; distinctly exposed in the sacraments for the living and for the dead.
b) The so-called sacramental Grace; the right to receive actual graces at the appropriate time; abundantly and intensely, enabling us to obtain the best fruits of each sacrament.
c) The Grace received from each sacrament is the same, but it will be greater or smaller according to the disposition of the person. It is therefore necessary to prepare ourselves worthily, in order to receive the sacraments with fervour.
d) Some Sacraments are stamped with an indelible character; others are not. The first ones cannot be repeated. The indelible sign which is stamped in the soul through the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation and Holy Orders, is called “sacramental character” .
How is the Grace received from each sacrament specified and determined?
Baptism is the sacrament that initiates the life of Grace. It renews man completely, erasing all sin and giving him sanctifying Grace. It plants some divine germs in the soul that will help to fertilize Confirmation, the sacrament of militancy in Christ. Penance recovers lost Grace and also increases it to overcome sin. Extreme Unction strengthens the supernatural organism wholly and causes a complete incorporation into Christ. Marriage increases Habitual Grace and yields the actual graces necessary to fulfil state duties. Holy Orders makes sanctification possible and yields actual graces to fulfil the proper duties of priesthood. The Eucharist is the greatest proof of the love of Christ. It is precisely the sacrament that feeds and unites us with Christ. It is the sacrament of our transformation in Christ through love.
The life of Grace can be lost through sin. That is why the Talk tries to explain without discouraging, the real difficulties that exist and could arise, together with the offer of some means to enable us to overcome them. It is not meant to frighten us as was customary in the old days, but rather to give us a vision of Grace from the angle of sin. Above all, it is a vision of the life of Grace.
Up to now we have noted the new life that Jesus Christ makes available and offers; the life of Grace, together with the means for its development and growth and the possibility of its loss. We are also going to see how the use of the means of growth is made. There are some practices that express the life of Grace and are simultaneously the food of that life.
What does the life of Grace consist in?
The life of Grace consists in living the actions of your body and soul, acquiring a conscience of dependency, submission and privacy with God. In other words, a life that is orientated totally towards God.
How can our whole life be orientated towards God?
1) He who lives in Grace, by the fact that he is living in Grace, lives united and oriented towards God, even if he is not conscious of it; just as man does not stop being man because he does not think about it.
2) A more perfect orientation is not only to live in Grace, but to realize the meaning of living in Grace.
In order to live in Grace and to totally orientate our existence towards God, there exist some means, some practices of piety that are not final objectives, which although not being the means to a life of Grace, they are nevertheless needed to be able to live in Grace. These practices of piety preserve and fortify this life. The main ones are: the offering of daily actions, meditation, Mass and communion, visits to the Holy Sacrament, the Rosary, examination of conscience and spiritual direction
These means will help us to live a true piety and consequently a conscious and increasing life of Grace towards the fullness of Christian life. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to have a living piety that knows what it is doing, its motivations and deep meaning, thus avoiding falling into a routine. A piety full of determination with a desire that moves towards action. A piety that puts into practice our ideas and projects. A piety that orientates all life towards God through knowledge, love and service in His Kingdom.
This style of ‘cursillista’ piety has some characteristics that are proposed as true signs of piety:
a) Naturalness. It consists of the clear expression of the supernatural life of our souls, towards the exterior, taken with simplicity to its last consequences; we want to lay the foundations of our Christianity on a human base (...).
b) Bravery. We are brave because we know exactly what God wants from us and what we can achieve with God, we know that in Grace He and us become overwhelming majority (...).
c) Virility. We want to confess, without embarassment or human respect, the faith we profess. Because of this our attitude in prayer and in acts of piety has to be strong and manly (...).
d) Joy. A Christian in Grace, living his Christianity in a natural, manly and brave way, in contrast brings to reality with his life, the well-known aphorism: "A sad saint is a sad case of a saint". Christian joy is the only authentic, constant and safe one, because it projects from the inside to the outside (...).
This piety is not something individualistic and closed, but opened up to apostolic projection to such an extent, that the Piety Talk ends with the affirmation that the perfection of our piety is the result of our apostolic work. Because we are generous with others, we want the best that we can have for others, and because we are ambitious, we do not rest until we conquer others so that Christ will also live in them.
Study is the application of our understanding to learn an art or a science. This is the definition which any dictionary can offer us. Man characterizes himself in having: heart —a sense of feeling—, head and willpower. Christianity causes our heart to be centred through piety, our intelligence to be centred by study and our will through action... Our action must be based in piety and directed by study. Study is therefore the marksmanship of our action... .
Christianity is above all, life. And it is necessary that it reveals a sense of complete life, with its brightness and shadows. A deep formation is however necessary to understand it, to assimilate it, and to be able to give reason for it. Our Study helps us to discover the two concepts that exist in Christianity, to which two separate classes of men correspond: The mediocre and the militant Christianity. Our Study would not be important if our intention is to make people become a little better. But the idea is for people to become saints, each one in his place and within his own circumstances, living the authentic Christian ideal. This requires study, a study to shed light on our understanding and determination to our will.
The object of our study is God and oneself. Knowing oneself thoroughly and honestly, and getting to know God’s plan for us. To really get to know God as a Personal and living being, who wants your own good, surpassing previous ideas that distort and falsify reality in its entirety.
Study is not an end in itself, but rather a way. Christianity is studied to solve life’s problems in a Christian way and to acquire a well-based and authentic apostolic formation. A formation that consists in giving a Christian form to life, by giving a Christian form to our ways of life. The idea is to exercise and perfect our Christian virtues and then shed them on others. It is for this reason that it has to be an apostolic formation, for in order to carry out apostolic work it is necessary to have a good formation.
Books are above all, the main source for our study. There are many books available for our formation, that is why we should not just read any good book, but only the best ones. They also help to research study circles and other similar practices.
Concluding the point on study, it is necessary to affirm that study is very important for our piety, to avoid falling in sentimentalism or superficialities. Piety is however more important without study than study without piety. The more the formation, the better, yet knowing that study is an aid for piety, and that being a saint is more important than being wise, although it would be ideal to become both.
The third pillar of Christian life as well as that of the re-Christianization of the world is our action, that together with piety and study, forms the classic tripod of Cursillos. The three aspects are intimately related, since piety constitutes the foundation and strength, study contributes to our ability and direction, whereas action will be our projection and effectiveness.
In order to define apostolic action, an approach is made from the general to the specific apostolic action. Starting from the premise that acting consists in the exercise of a power, several types of action are distinguished:
In first place human action, which is the exercise of human powers: Head, will and senses, that lead us to achieve our human ideals.
There also exists, as an additional step in the scale of realities, supernatural action, which is the collection of our human possibilities, elevated by the Grace of God to efficiency in the supernatural order. This action can also be called apostolic, since through our duty to strict charity, the demands of Grace take us unavoidably to cooperate with all our strength in the expansion of the kingdom of God in souls.
When speaking of action in this Talk, we are not referring to human action, but solely to supernatural and apostolic action, considered as the exercise of the power of charity.
Action is the consequence of life, and life is confirmed, stimulated and reinforced with action. Apostolic action will therefore be the expression and projection of the life of Grace, in communication with Christ. Apostolic action becomes thus the perfection of piety, consisting in communicating the Grace that is lived.
Apostolic action is necessary in three dimensions: Internal and vital to oneself, external and vital for others, and essential in the Church. It is internal and vital to oneself because the Christian apostle is the power of Christianity, and all vital power without action withers and dies. Life itself is action and is developed and perfected through action. Christian life manifests itself in Christian action and simultaneously requires this action. It is external and vital for others because the world is corrupted. The world is lost through lack of Grace, through a lack of men who live it with authenticity, of men who incarnate it and know how to communicate it with bravery. Thirdly, because the Church consists in going out and preaching, it is essential to live and to present the Good News of the Gospel.
In order for it to be effective, apostolic action requires a series of elements, qualities and methods. The elements it requires are four: the head, that is to say, the intelligence and reflection to plan the action; the will to decide its accomplishment; the arms, that represent the specific action; and finally, the knees, which are the main element, that of prayer and sacrifice. The knees are the great “levers" of every apostle. The qualities of apostolic action are: Rationality, decision, bravery, conviction, enthusiasm, constancy, and that it is supernatural and apostolic. As to methods, three are singled out that are like three phases of a process: Firstly to make friends; secondly to become friends, that is to say, to approach them, to connect and to live their truth; and thirdly, to make them friends of Christ acting through Him, with Him, in Him and like Him. That will mean never to look for oneself, but to work only for Christ. To act with Him through an intense experience of Grace. To act in Him because His salvation is universal. To act like Him, without distinctions of race, sex, social class, etc. Always in an open and universal disposition.
This Christian life, the life of Grace that Christ merits for us and offers us, must not be lived in an individualistic and isolated way. On the contrary, it must be lived in community, in the Church. Now then, what is the Church?
It is the society instituted by Christ, to make the Mystery of Redemption perennial on Earth. Our Holy Mother the Church that guides and illuminates our path in this life towards the eternity (...) the Church of Christ in history, which is the same as saying, the tangible but real and true work of God in man. Because the Church is a projection of Christ, it is the way that directs us, the truth that clarifies our way and the life that encourages us to follow it without faltering. Christ continues His redeeming work in time and space with those who live in Him through Grace.
The world is in a bad state, it needs an integral solution, and the solution to its evils lies in the Church, because Christ is in her. The task of fixing the world is proper to the Church. How can it be achieved? ... in a single task that has two dimensions: transforming souls by giving them Grace; and transforming the world by means of those who live in Grace. The first corresponds to the priest, the second to us lay people. Both priests and lay people are Church, and both have the mission to advance the Church forward. Both follow the same objective, but each one of us in his own level... .
The proper mission of lay people consists in carrying out the consecration of the world. This is realized by incarnating Christ in all the circumstances of life, at family level, at work, within the various friendship environments, in our leisure time... To live the Christian way, living Grace in a conscious way in the midst of men. The idea is not that of being a substitute for a clergyman, but of being a resonance of the voice of God that awakens a restlessness for the truth, in those environments where our hierarchy cannot reach and which need to witness a testimonial message of life.
The mission of the lay person has some characteristic notes: It is a supernatural, apostolic and hierarchic mission of men. A mission of people with a deep and incisive personality, realizing the miracle of normality in their lives. The object is to be saints in the style of every period in time, adapting oneself to the moment we have been chosen to live. The lay person has to live this normality with the power that authenticity produces and with the thrust of someone who is rooted in Christ. Working in the construction of the Kingdom is a supernatural mission, together with one’s total incorporation into Christ through Grace. The rest will be given in addition. An apostolic mission for the spiritual salvation of our fellow men, living the truth and having an influence on the environments, thereby enabling Christ to reach all of them. A hierarchic mission because the Church’s hierarchy represents that which is safe, eternal and true. To second with prompt obedience the directions of the hierarchy. To act with creativity in the fields in which freedom of movement occurs, and to always pose the initiatives to the problems that are raised.
Each person is unique and unrepeatable and must also give a testimony of Christ which is unique and unrepeatable. There are certain actions in the Mystical Body that depend only on oneself, and in respect of them we have to claim a responsibility that we do not yield to anyone. The good that concerns us depends on the situation in which we have placed ourselves and nobody can take charge of it in our place.
All the members of the Mystical Body, therefore have a unique and non-transferable responsibility, each one his own. Each person is important, with talents and capabilities, with concrete graces that God gives him to contribute and to be an active part in the History of Salvation.
Everyone with his own talents, irrespective of the type and in whatever degree they are, has to feel called to the transformation of the world. We are all co-responsible, and consequently all of us have to be leaders. Being a leader is not to be super-gifted or a charismatic leader, but rather leaders are those lay people who having heard the call of the Lord, embark themselves decidedly in apostolic action, with an open and balanced spirit and a criteria of supernatural effectiveness. They are those that incarnate Christ in the world in a clear, live, convincing and true way. Those that open gaps and ways towards God.
When outlining the qualities of a leader, we turn to a quote of Saint Pius X: [They] must be sound Catholics, firm in faith, solidly instructed in religious matters, truly devoted to the Church and specially to this supreme Apostolic See and the Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth. They must be men of genuine piety, of manly virtues, of pure habits and of a life so irreproachable, that they will be a guiding example to all others.
A series of qualities are already outlined in this description that are not extraordinary, or characteristic of an elite body, but are derived from Baptism. The leader, while respecting the idiosyncrasy and circumstances of each person, has or tends to have these qualities. A series of natural and supernatural qualities that all Christians must have, and consequently every lay leader must possess, can be highlighted. The natural or human qualities would be: To know the ideal, to know the reality, to have discipline, affection, initiative and generosity. In summary, these qualities must be directed to obtain a deep personality centred in a Christian axis, since Christianity does not cancel personality, it boosts it.
Simultaneously, he must possess some supernatural qualities that develop the potential of Baptism and direct towards sanctity. These are: live Faith, true Humility, Hope and Charity.
Christian life, shared in community in the Church, is not an illusion experienced in the three days of the Cursillo, but the accurate way of personal accomplishment that must be projected beyond the Cursillo. The Cursillo cannot remain as a simple experience of a weekend that will be remembered with affection. The Cursillo is the beginning of a new life, or a change of rhythm if one was already living in Grace. Life begins with the fourth day, which returns us to reality, to the environment where each one develops his or her existence. Continuity and perseverance is very important as explained in the last two Talks: The ‘cursillista’ beyond the Cursillo and Total Insurance.
Perseverance is based on two pillars: Contact with Christ and contact with our brothers. Contact with Christ is continuous through life in Grace and is intensified through prayer and the reception of the sacraments. Contact with our brothers is assured by means of the Group Reunion. This will serve to open spiritual horizons to stimulate apostolic work and to highlight team spirit, and will ultimately make work more efficient in the extension of the Kingdom.
To persevere it is necessary to avoid two dangers: Thinking we are something and thinking we are nothing. To think we are something means to lose sight that next to the apostolic mission with which we have been entrusted, we are useless instruments in God’s hands and that we must let Him act through our life. To think we are nothing is to surrender in moments of difficulty, to sin against hope, to forget that with Christ we can achieve everything.
Perseverance has three dimensions that consist of three kinds of imperatives. What the ‘cursillista’ has to be, what he has to have and what he has to know. The ‘cursillista’ has to be Christian. To be ‘cursillista’ is to be Christian. Militant for the cause of Christ. Follower of the work of Christ through His procedures (...). The ‘cursillista’ must be living testimony of the Gospel in such a way that through him, Christ will manifest Himself to others as alive, normal and near.
The ‘cursillista’ has to have a clear concept of the ideal that moves his life, to be able to achieve the objective of having his whole life marching at the rhythm of the Church. He has to have a clear concept of reality, whether wished for or allowed by God, to study it, to look for solutions and succeed in his transformation.
Thirdly, the ‘cursillista’ has to know that apostolic dimension is not identical in all Christians, although they must all feel responsible and contribute, not forgetting that they act according to the orders of the Hierarchy and the wishes of the Pope, in the construction of the Mystical Body of Christ.
Perseverance, therefore, has some foundations and dimensions, but must be reached through specific means that consist mainly in the Group Reunion. The Group Reunion is the second moment of the Cursillos in Christianity. In it the Cursillo becomes perennial and Christianity becomes constant; all that is lived in a Christian way must be lived together. The Group Reunion is none other than a channel to live together the Christianity that each one lives or tries to live.
Abounding on the importance and the need of the Group Reunion, it is even stated that friendship is the deepest way of living together. Consecuently, the Group Reunion is friendship elevated to the field of trascendent things: Friendship turned into Actual Grace permanently (...). The Group Reunion is not a simple means of perseverance since it is also necessary for someone who would persevere without doing it. Its core is within the Christian essential, in the experience of the Communion of Saints. Group Reunion is necessary to facilitate individual needs: The living together in a normal, perennial and jubilant way of our life in Christianity. Introducing each Christian to a circumstance of sanctifying power that serves him as impulse and measure of his Christian being (...). Group Reunion is the place, the way and the instrument where the practical, formidable and triumphant truth of our catholic and apostolic Christianity are outlined and take shape.
Group Reunion therefore has a double facet: It is certainly a means of perseverance, but it is not only that, it is also the circumstance that facilitates the experience of the Communion of Saints, the experience of ecclesial communion.
Group Reunion combines some constituent characteristics shaped by a live faith, which are the following: Regularity, seriousness, confidentiality and sincerity.
The conclusion to this Talk presents the Group Reunion as the solution to all problems and a solution within reach of all, whatever the complexity of our life (...) it is the solution that Christianity offers the world now by means of the Cursillos.
From the moment of deep encounter with Christ, people begin a new life, the life of Grace, lived in community in the heart of the Church. But the process does not end there. It is necessary to project oneself towards the transformation of the world. We have seen how the mission of lay people was the consecration of the world, incarnating Christ in all circumstances. By world we mean humanity, specific people who form the different environments.
An environment is the collection of ideas, people and circumstances, that come together at a certain time and place.
It is very important to take over the environment, and to achieve this it is necessary to have a work plan that comprises three fronts: Oneself, our companions, and the environment. The fight for personal conquest is the one that demands greater courage and effort. First, a strong and determined will is needed, with total intensity. Next, it is necessary to use the knees, for these are the levers [palancas] of the apostle, since strength will be found in the Tabernacle, and the beginning and foundation of action is prayer. Third, Intelligence is required to proceed with tact, decision and success. Finally a heart is required, a big and human heart that connects and adapts to everyone with the purpose of winning them all for Christ.
The second front is that of our companions, who on a scale of greater to lesser religiousness, we could categorize in the following way:
CATHOLICS WHO BELIEVE IN GOD; THEY LOVE GOD AND THEY WANT TO DO GOOD.
a) Authentic: Practical, they think and act in the catholic way.
They are everywhere in the world, because if this was not the case, it would have collapsed. They are those who uphold Christian values in life and value things only for what they are worth. These are the saints in the times of 19… who know how to walk in life treading strongly. They are the incarnation of that which is pretended, those that give an authentic answer in all circumstances according to the demands of their Christianity.
b) Quietists: They think in Christian but taste like an easy chair.
They are those who are not committed; they want to do good without bothering too much.
c) Of practices: Prayerful, ‘kissers of altars’, gossipers: pretending to be pious.
d) Honest: They call themselves and they are... except in the things they fail to be. Being absent-minded for them is an exceptional situation.
A common denominator of these Catholics who want to do good could be that they always try to be Catholics.
CATHOLICS WHO BELIEVE IN GOD, LOVE GOD AND WANT TO BE GOOD.
a) Unmotivated: They are Individuals who need someone to push them or a circumstance to spur them on to fulfil their Christian obligations. The goad can be priestly, maternal, paternal, fraternal, familial, from the professor, from the employer, the military, from a friend, one's betrothed, a religious figure, etc.
b) Spouse pleasers: When an individual thinks that pretending to be pious will make him gain points in front of a girl who interests him or in front of his mother-in-law, he will do what that other one did while he was courting. He attended the High Mass every Sunday, but from the wedding day on, he failed to attend High Masses or any others.
d) Miracle seekers [Of saint Rita in Spanish]: Mediatrix of impossibles... we all know how 'devout' students become when examinations arrive and how they turn to saint Rita to complicate her in the laziness they have had during the entire course.
e) Of saint Pancras: For their own interest. This saint was very fashionable when as a result of the 'black market’, there was no excess of food. It is said that there was even someone who distributed his gains, obtained in this way, with the saint, to continue having a run of good luck. [N. T. Superstitious individuals who look for a lucky charm and hope that religion will help somehow them gain what they want.]
f) Of saint Anthony: The fame of this saint is well known as agent of marital arrangements, and the number of candles ignited for him by spinsters and bachelors is directly related in respect to requirements and age.
h) Show-offs: They are individuals for whom High Masses are part of the Sunday festivities.
k) Of brotherhoods: They think that because they wear a vestment of great tradition and they attend the Holy Week procession with it, that they have already fulfilled all their religious obligations. The truth is that every kind of people attend these processions; there are even those who say that on this day the police brigade is more at ease, because most of the thieves are in the procession.
CATHOLICS WHO BELIEVE IN GOD, BUT NOTHING ELSE
b): Hard skin: They have hardened their conscience so much that they no longer register the failures.
d) Of black lenses: These already have their intentions more twisted. They know about ‘folk’ Christianity. They have a great devotion to a certain image and are always predisposed to break the face of a devotee to a 'rival’ image.
Common denominator: let us say that these are Catholics through negligence.
THEY DO NOT BELIEVE BECAUSE THEY IGNORE GOD
It is important that we give special attention to this sector of the front, since it is the quarry where the best leaders can and have in fact emerged. They are those who do not believe as easily as the rest, because they are not satisfied with the vision of a minimised and non-authentic Christ, who does not demand from them everything they are capable of giving, does not satisfy them. But when they are confronted with all the real and possible dimensions of the Gospel, they give themselves up totally.
a) The unconcerned ones: They made their first Holy Communion... Which should must have been the alternative that sent them to grow every day more in Christ, becomes the last point of reference of their Christianity.
b) The stray ones: The seven sins: Bound if they are wealthy and without binding if they are poor. An explanation of this is hardly necessary: when someone has money the person tries to cover up sins with a certain elegance to camouflage them in the eyes of others and make them more susceptible to delicate sensitivities (...).
c) The big-headed: They are the ones who when faced with the demands of Christianity, choose the truths they like and throw the others overboard. Faced with the commandments, they behave like a person in front of a confectionery shop choosing chocolates, they choose the ones they like and are comfortable with, and leave the others. To the orphaned, the fulfilment of the fourth commandment comes in very handy.
1) There are those that are big-headed through ignorance: The case could arise where an individual who never goes to Mass, and who decides to go once a month, may think that because of this he is fulfilling the precepts amply.
2) Others choose comfort: They see religion through the prism of their comfort. On Sunday they do not go to Mass because it has rained in the morning, and in the evening they have to go to the cinema.
3) Many desire convenience: Rather than modify their conduct, they prefer not to face the truth.
4) Some suffer a lax conscience: They calibrate their conscience in accordance with the circumstances they are going through, always finding a reason for their calculated wrongs.
d) The atheists with God: they think that each millimetre failed by a priest excuses them in their failure of a kilometre. God wants us to accept the truth even though it may not always come through perfect conduits (...).
e) The bullies: They can be singing a "saeta” (typical song sang in Easter processions in Spain) one moment, and in the next hurting the first one to contradict them.
If we must group them together within a common denominator, we can say of them that they are not Catholic because they take care not to be.
THEY DO NOT BELIEVE BECAUSE THEY HATE GOD
a) Practical or mistaken atheists: Those who are practically not interested in religion at all. They have never placed the religious problem in the first level of their conscience.
b) Intellectual or theoretic atheists: They are the most dangerous because they use their intelligence to try and kill the idea of God in the minds and hearts of others. Luckily there are very few of these. It is difficult to find a chemically pure atheist. Belief in something is always there: It is not strange for someone who does not believe in God to believe in the hair of an elephant or in an ivory Buddha.
Common denominator: Suspicious non-Catholics.
Having examined the ample spectrum of possible companions that we will run into, let us see the tactics to be able to conquer them, which contain the same elements of the first front, but in different order. Our first aim will be at the heart. We have to start by gaining the heart with understanding, gentleness and love. Next we move to the intelligence, which will not be so difficult if we consider that we are working with baptized people. Thirdly we try to “magnetize" the will; not to force it or to put pressure on it, but to motivate it, to invite it to follow Jesus Christ. Once the heart, intelligence and will are conquered, they will fall on their knees by the Grace of God.
The third front, that of the environment, is a consequence of the first and second being in operation. In order to transform the environments, they will have to be penetrated with the Grace of God and with all available human capabilities.
Transforming the environments is not an easy task, and even less so doing it personally, with the individualistic work like a sniper. It is necessary to work with others within the Church, integrating and participating in a “Christianity in action". We can define a Christianity in action as a nucleus of Christians in Grace, who coexist in a climate which facilitates the living and the propagation of the Gospel in the world.
A "nucleus of Christians" means a group of people who know themselves thoroughly, who live together like brothers, who admire God’s work in each other, and who consequently profess a deep friendship among themselves. In order to live in Grace these Christians need to exert their personal effort at all times, they need the help of their brothers, and above all they need the "gift of the Lord", which comes across via the two previous means, and sometimes directly.
These Christians coexist together, that is to say, they share their life with each other. This coexistence serves several purposes: To remain in the life of Grace, to urge themselves on mutually in their pilgrimage through life, and to obtain greater effectiveness in apostolic activity, following the guidance of the Lord Himself, who sent out His disciples to preach in twos and not individually.
The climate of coexistence of these Christians is such, that it makes it possible for the Gospel to be lived and propagated. It facilitates the experience of the Gospel because the difference of classes, colour and origin disappear... by the power of Christ’s benevolence. It makes it possible for moral miracles to take place continuously; to live life in continuous joy, proper to the good relationship in a big family, and finally, that all life´s realities may be contemplated from within faith in relation to God.
It also makes the propagation of the Gospel possible in the middle of the world, because a testimony of evangelical experience is extremely attractive in itself. On the other hand, living and sharing together with other Christians gives strength to apostolic work when contemplating the testimony and effort of others. Being member of a nucleus of Christians will also help one to lose human respect: fear to fail or to humble oneself, and will help at the same time not to be proud or become vain through success. Finally, it will facilitate communication and support by all from within prayer and sacrifice.
We have analyzed what a Christianity in action is. Let us now see how it acts and what it obtains. It must act at three levels: Individually, in group and in community. At individual level, each one in his place, that is to say, each one working where God has placed him at professional or family level; secondly at the level of a small group, with intimate friends, which is what the Group Reunion will be; thirdly at communitarian level, in connection with everyone, since small groups are not closed boundaries, and as shown by the example of the first Christian community of Jerusalem, the point is to share our whole life in community. This is done in the Ultreya, which is the reunion of the Group Reunions.
The successes that a Christianity in action can reach are those that Christ himself announces and offers when affirming: You will do the same things I have been doing and even greater than these. We can state the following: the conversion of many through the Cursillo, the Christianisation of many environments through the action of the ‘cursillistas’, the improvement that takes place in the world when many of those living in it improve, the growth of the Church, and as a result of it all, the joy of the Lord that makes our life happy when we contemplate the conversion of many people and their generous surrender.
In conclusion everything oozes optimism and hope:
We have a triumphal conception of Christianity, not because of whim, but by theological experience, because it is the only true one, and because experience confirms it every day. Christ works through those who looked for Him calling Him with a falsified name, and He will continue to open His way running over, without hurting, everything that remains to be sanctified. We are in no doubt about having the certain and active hope, that in the end the triumph will be ours, because it will be Christ’s. And we are not satisfied with a distant and remote ending, but rather with our cheerful effort, we try to accelerate to the maximum the fullness of the triumph of Christ. And we know that people are looking for God, no matter how much they hide it. We know that if we do not fail Him, God will turn up for His appointment[... ] .
Cf. LBMCC, pp. 21-26.
Cf. STRO, Ideal; MD, pp. 99-102.
 Cf. MD, 99-102. This Meditation tries to confront man with his own reality, and to make him look for and find the solution that will orientate his future based on authenticity and coherence with himself. Cf. IF p. 186; IFA, p.145.
Cf. STRO, Ideal, p. 9-10.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 12-13. The Talk is inspired in the work of Manuel Garci'a Morente, Ser y vida del Caballero Cristiano [Being and life of the Christian Gentleman], Madrid 1945. This Talk tries to instil in the ‘cursillista’s’ conscience the need to have an ideal in life in order to be an authentic pertson. Cf. MD, pp. 112-114; IF, p. 189.
Cf. See chapter 2, second part of this work.
Cf. MD, p. 146.
MD, p. 148.
MD, p. 102.
Cf. Lc 15, 11-32.
MD pp. 102-103. The application made to Christ in the parable of the Prodigal Son is curious. It is the first time we come across an interpretation in which the figure of the kind father is applied to Christ. In IFA, it is already applied to God the Father.
Cf. MD, p. 107.
MD, p. 149.
Cf. Mt 22, 15-46; Jn 8, 1-11, etc.
Cf. Lc 5, 21-22; 7, 39 ss; 9, 46-48; Jn 1, 47; 6, 71.
Cf. MD, pp. 108-110; Mc 10, 17-22; Mt 26, 50; Lc 22, 61.
MD, p. 149.
Mt 28, 18.
L. OTT, Manual de Teología Dogmática[Manual of Dogmatic Theology], sixth revised edition, Barcelona 1968, pp. 274-276.
MD, p. 149.
J. Rivera; J. M. Iraburu, Espiritualidad católica[Catholic Spirituality], Madrid 1982, pp. 116-121; M. González Gil, Cristo, el misterio de Dios[Christ, the mystery of God], Madrid 1976, pp. 380-381.
GS, n 22.
MD, p. 183.
Cf. MD, pp. 183-185.
Cf. Jn 15, 16.
Cf. Jn 15, 5.
Cf. Jn 17, 17.
Cf. Jn 17, 20.
Cf. Jn 16, 33.
Cf. MD, pp. 156-158.
MD, p .157.
Cf. MD, pp. 158-164.
MD, p. 161.
Cf. LG, cap. V.
Cf. Chapter 5 Point B of the first part of this work (Genesis)
MD, p. 119.
MD, p. 121.
Cf. MD pp. 122-126.
Cf. MD pp. 120-126
Cf. II Pe 1,4. His very great and precious promises have come from this power, because through them we can participate in divine nature…
MD pp. 123-124. The explanation that the outline gives on the participation
of divine nature says that the soul, with Habitual Grace, is not only
left free from sin, but also participates in the nature of God, since Grace
allows us to know Him and to love Him as He knows and loves us, and since
the nature of God consists in knowing and loving ourselves, participating in
this knowledge and love is to participate in His nature. Man can be called
'deified'; ‘made as God’; because...
- minerals resemble God as BEING;
- plants and animals, as LIVE BEING;
-man and the angel, as INTELLIGENT LIVE BEING;
- the soul in grace, LIKE GOD.
Outcome: We are gods. Esteem our greater dignity.
Cf. Jn 14, 23: If someone loves me, he will keep my word. My Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our abode in him; I Co 3,16: Don't you know that you yourselves are temples of God and that the Holy Spirit lives in you?; Cf. Rm 5,5; 8, 11; I Co 6, 9.
Cf. I Co 12, 12: In the same way that the body is one and is made up of many parts; even though all its parts are many, they form one single body, and so it is with Christ; Jn 15, 5: I am the vine; you are the branches. He who remains in me and I in him, will bear much fruit; separated from me you can do nothing.
Cf. Rm 8,15 ss.: You have not received the spirit of slavery so as to fall into fear once again, rather you have received the Spirit of adoption by which we cry: “Abba, Father.” 16The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are God's children, and if we are His children, then we are also heirs - heirs of God and co-heirs of Christ; Cf. Gal 4,5 ss.; Jn 1, 12 ss.
Cf. MD p. 126.
Cf. MD pp. 132-133.
Cf. Jn 15, 15: Without Me you can do nothing
MD p. 135.
Cf. MD, pp. 134-135. The example is a little exaggerated by the conversion it reflects. It goes as far as saying textually that Actual Grace is the spark (light and heat - it illuminates and fortifies) that provokes the movement of the supernatural act. Although examples are always vague, even if they help us to understand and we have to be understanding with them, one feels that this one is too much of a conversion On the other hand, it can give the impression that Habitual Grace is something static that is ignited by Actual Grace. Habitual Grace is certainly "habitual", but it is not something static, it is something that renews man continuously. Our sanctification, divinisation and participation in divine nature entails a continuous dynamism. It does not however prevent temporary supernatural aids being available, which raise certain acts in the understanding or will of the person.
Cf. MD p. 136.
MD p. 136.
Cf. MD p. 157. Within the objective of the Talk, the introductory notes explain how habitual grace, in the present economy of Providence, is acquired, conserved and increased. Normally, through the practice of ‘something’, the life of the “cursillista” is orientated towards a visible and hierarchic piety, with a view to the third day. In the expression 'something’ we again find a conversion.
MD p. 157.
MD p. 158.
Cf. MD, pp. 158-164.
Cf. MD p. 169. The focus of this Talk is extremely pedagogical and advanced for its time. While much emphasis was given to sin in the popular Missions and Spiritual Exercises, here sin is explained very much in relation to Grace as an obstacle, as the absence of Grace, but giving priority to the reality of Grace in its approach. It will also be stressed that the vision of sin should not be of an individualistic nature, on the contrary it should make them feel apostolic responsibility Ib. p. 170. Here a communitarian and social repercussion in sin is already highlighted, absent enough in those years.
Cf. MD pp. 192-193. In the introduction to this Talk, its relation with that of Habitual Grace is highlighted, and insistence is made on emphasizing the importance of the practices, as the nourishment and expression of Grace.
 MD p. 194.
 MD p. 194.
 Cf. MD pp. 195-199. The Talk on Life in grace is centered mainly on piety, but strictly speaking deals with our whole Christian life. For that reason we link in it the three Talks that correspond to Piety, Study and Action, which encompasses our whole Christian life, and which integrates the famous ‘cursillista’ tripod that comprises the Record of Service sheet. In the Piety Talk of the Texas Secretariat, the elements of piety are enumerated and they almost coincide with those enumerated in MD in Christian Life. We should note as differences, that the first contemplates Apostolic Hour, Saturday Service, Spiritual Retreats and Spiritual Exercises as elements of piety, which the second does not have; whereas the second adds Spiritual Direction, which was not contemplated in the first.
 Cf. STRO, Piety, pp. 12-13.
 STRO, Piety, pp. 13-17.
 Ibid., p. 18.
 STRO, Study, p. 8.
 Cf. Ibid. pp. 8-9.
 Cf. Ibid. pp. 11-12.
 Cf. Ibid. pp. 12-13.
 Cf. Ibid. p. 13. It cites three books of among many others that are suitable for formation: El valor divino de lo humano [The divine value of the human], by Jesus Urteaga; Lift Up Your Heart, by Fulton Sheen and The Lord, by Romano Guardini..
 Cf. Ibid. p. 14.
 Cf. STRO, Acción[Action], p. 8
 STRO, Acción[Action], p. 8
 Cf. Ibid., p. 8.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 9-10. In the MD, we find it in pp. 166-167. The necessity of apostolic action is only summed up in the first two points: Vital for us and vital for others. The third point, which deals with how vital it is for the Church, is not included.
Cf. Ibid., pp. 10-19. The MD, pp. 168-169, does not speak so conclusively about not dwelling in conveniences or in social classes. It orients it towards taking advantage of circumstances and to working with naturalness. And after like Him, it adds a new point: In the Church of Christ, which centres itself in the collaboration with the Hierarchy.
 STRO, El Seglar en la Iglesia [The Lay man in the Church], p. 7; the MD, pp. 128-129, in the corresponding outline to this Talk, when responding to the question, ‘what is the Church?’ it enumerates five sections in which it is clearly seen as the instrument to apply the fruits of redemption throughout history, it is the Mystical Body of Christ of which we all form a part, but it also states that is the Kingdom of God on Earth under the government of apostolic authority, and that is a true society; constituted hierarchically. These two last points are not in the descriptive definition of the oldest Talk that we have of the Texas Secretariat. It shows that when writing up the Manual, everything acquires a more clerical tone and the hierarchic dimension is emphasized.
 Cf. Ibid. p. 7.
 STRO, o. c., p. 7.
 Cf. STRO, Acción, p. 9.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 9-11.
STRO, o. c., p. 9. This insistence on "normality" is due to the fact that at the time, Christian life was something attributed to selected minorities or to women. The Cursillo in Christianity Movement tries to incarnate itself in all environments, and that means adapting and living grace with naturalness and normality
Ibid., p. 11. This mission of lay people in the Church derives from Baptism and Confirmation. This is not recorded in STRO, although it figures in MD, p. 129. The idea of this quote, that must be understood in the line of the Mystici Corporis, can also to be contemplated as advance of the Lumen Gentium, and of the affirmation that lay apostolate is a right-duty that emanates from Baptism.
STRO, Dirigentes [Leaders], p. 7. The point raised about there being no classes within Christians and that all can and must be leaders is very interesting. A leader is everyone that has an influence in his environment through an authentic and committed life.
 S. Pius X, Il fermo proposito, n 11 (http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Pius10/p10fermo.htm )
Cf. STRO, Leaders, pp. 8-11. The final summary is an application of the well known thesis that grace does not annul nature, but rather elevates it.
 Cf. Ibid. pp. 11-14.
The fourth day is, as it is known in cursillista jargon, the day following the Cursillo and of the whole life that follows. The subject of the perseverance is treated in these two Talks. In the Texas plans it is finalized with Total Insurance, whereas in MD it is in reverse order.
Cf. STRO, The Cursillista beyond the Cursillo, p.9. When speaking about contact with Christ as the foundation of perseverance, the MD, pp. 214-215, in addition to contact through life in Grace, through prayer and the sacraments, adds a fourth aspect: The contact with Christ through the Hierarchy, that is a living Christ among the faithful.
 Cf. Ibid., p. 8. The typical cursillista phrase to express that with Christ we can achieve everything is Christ and us are overwhelming majority.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 9-12
 Ibid., p. 9.
 Ibid., p. 11.
STRO, Total Insurance, p. 6. This it is the last Talk of the Cursillo and must become the bridge between the Cursillo and post-Cursillo, that is why it tends to lay the way of perseverance. The object is to assure continuity and to make clear that the fourth day is when the Cursillo really begins. The Group Reunion, which is dealt with in this Talk, has been given as much importance as the Cursillo itself, because it offers the key to perseverance, that worries everyone MD, p. 208.
 Ibid., pp. 6-7.
 This touch of ecclesial communion lived in small community is interesting. The object is not only to bear external difficulties, but mainly to boost oneself and to live communion in depth.
 Cf., STRO, Seguro total[Total Insurance], p. 10
 Ibid., p. 14.
 Cf. Point D of this chapter.
 STRO, Estudio del ambiente [Study of the environment], p. 7. Considering apostolic work as an influence on environments is a genuine element of the Cursillos in Christianity. F. Forteza, in Historia y Memoria de Cursillos [History and Memory of Cursillos], p. 20, speaking of the birth of the method, gathers and synthesizes the idea: Indeed, considering that reality moves more through environments than by structures, organizations or classes, and that a deep knowledge of one’s own environment is necessary to transform it, clearly distinguishing those who configure the ‘environment’ itself - or 'the masses’ -, concentrating on the first and applying a very different strategy according to whether these remain in the scope of 'us' or 'the others', constitutes the spine of the subsequent movement of Cursillos when it is genuine.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 7-8.
Ibid., pp. 9-12. I consider it advisable to transcribe this complete catalogue because it supposes -in spite of the anecdote-, an exhaustive classification of the people who form the environments. Although it reflects some elements and typical tics of the 40s, it is nevertheless applicable as a whole to any period as far as the analysis it makes of attitudes.
 Cf. Ibid., p. 12.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 12-13.
STRO, Christianity in action p. 6. The initiators of the Cursillos in Christianity Movement concluded that apostolic work could have a triple conception and polarization in three attitudes, not opposed, but however different in the orientation of the effort: 1) That of those who work "to save souls"; 2) That of those who have a craving for "special and concrete organizations", and 3) That of those could glimpse at and wished to find, that is to say, "the constructing, the making of Christianity ". CCIRC, pp. 66-67.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 6-9.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 9-11.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 11-14. One of the characteristics of this Movement is its heterogeneity, as we saw previously (point D of chapter 3). The object is to have an alive Christian community, where people of all ages, culture, etc can coexist... without this being an obstacle to living the evangelical brotherhood. This is a testimony that must be shown by Christian communities, and which is totally updated. The point is no longer that of an evangelical testimony at individual level. A communitarian testimony is needed to show that it is possible to live the Gospel sharing life in brotherhood, in the midst of a competitive world, full of selfishness and lacking in solidarity.
 The word used in the text of this Talk is Intendancy, which is the way in which prayer and sacrifice for a specific intention is known in primitive cursillista jargon.
 Cf. Ibid., pp. 14-17.
 Cf. He 2, 42 ss.
 Cf. Jn 14,12
 STRO, Cristiandad en acción [Christianity in action], p. 17.